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|What is cancer? It is considered one of the most common diseases around the world. [message #691]
||Thu, 14 May 2020 17:18
Registered: January 2020
Cancer, is the name under which a wide group of pathologies of varied origin are known, which are characterized by the development of cells that multiply and disperse in an uncontrolled way throughout the human organism, affecting, invading and transforming the healthy tissue (be it adjacent or distant).|
Under normal conditions, the body's cells die at a programmed time and divide in a controlled manner, but in the case of these cells with altered morphology this does not happen, since the rate of cell death is diminished and their multiplication is prolonged without limits and very quickly, giving rise to masses of tissue called neoplasms.
There are two important concepts to take into account, one is carcinogenesis and the other is metastasis.
Carcinogenesis: It is the transmutation of normal cells into cancer cells, generating modifications in their genetic material.
Metastasis: Is the term for the migration towards healthy tissues (beyond their normal limits) and its subsequent invasion, by these abnormal cells. This metastasis is the main cause of deaths related to malignant tumors.
First, the invasion occurs in the areas adjacent to the primary tumor, and then it spreads to lymphatic and blood vessels, and later to the more removed tissues, to form the new cancer cells.
These new tumor cells have a greater capacity for survival and propagation than the primary one, partly due to their ability to elude the control processes carried out by the immune system.
Most common cancers
Lung, liver, colorectal, gastric, breast, cervical and prostate cancer.
It's given by the type of tissue where the tumor originated.
Leukemias: Cancer that affects the tissues of the blood. In it, the bone marrow generates abnormal blood cells. Individuals who suffer from it are prone to develop infections and disorders in the blood clotting process.
Sarcomas: Cancer located in connective tissue, bones, muscles, tendons, fatty tissue, nerves, etc.
Lymphomas: Cancer of the lymphatic tissue, affecting the lymph nodes, bone marrow, thymus and spleen.
Carcinomas: Cancer that originates in the cells that line the organs, called epithelial cells. It is the most common type of cancer.
Causes and risk factors
The cellular mutations that lead to carcinogenesis may be due to acquired or inherited factors.
-Biological carcinogens such as some viruses (human papillomavirus, hepatitis) and bacteria
-Tobacco consumption and exposure to cigarette smoke.
-Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.
-Bad eating habits
-Obesity and lack of physical activity
-Exposure to chemicals, such as arsenic, zinc chromate, aflatoxin, etc.
-Prolonged exposure to ionizing or ultraviolet radiation
-Exposure to environmental pollutants (smoke from industrial factories)
To increase the chances of survival it is imperative that there is a diagnosis in the early stages of the disease when no symptoms are yet present, as there is less chance that the treatment will be effective when detected in advanced stages.
Unfortunately, many patients are diagnosed when there is already considerable disease progression. But in contrast to this, thanks to the medical and technological advances that have been developed in recent years, the risk of mortality has decreased thanks to the introduction of early detection means.
According to the symptomatology presented by the patient, a series of diagnostic procedures will be indicated, among which the following stand out
Imaging studies such as x-ray, ultrasound, CT scan or MRI; blood tests; endoscopy; biopsy, for tissue evaluation. Among many others.
o National policies focused on enhancing preventive strategies.
o Avoid or eliminate practices mentioned among the risk factors
o Vaccine against the hepatitis virus and HPV
o Control or avoid exposure to radiation (several health professionals are exposed to ionizing radiation in their practice) and to carcinogens
Treatment The different types of cancer need their own protocol of care, depending on the progress of the disease, its location, etc.
In general, surgical procedures, chemotherapy or radiotherapy are usually indicated. Other options are immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation and laser therapy.
It is necessary to point out that therapeutic accompaniment is a key factor in coping more positively with the disease and all the changes in the dynamics of life that it produces. It is important that psychological therapies begin immediately after the pathology has been confirmed.
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