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Home » Health Care News and Talk! » Hospitals » What is Diabetes? The chronic disease considered a Public Health problem.
What is Diabetes? The chronic disease considered a Public Health problem. [message #686] Mon, 11 May 2020 18:58
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Glucometer, device to measure blood sugar levels.

Diabetes is a group of diseases or metabolic disorders whose particularity is based on the presence of chronic hyperglycemia, that is, high levels of sugar in the blood. In addition, it is accompanied by failures in the secretion of insulin and/or its action (a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar levels).

This pathology is widespread worldwide. This, it can be presumed, is largely due to the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle and an inadequate diet that leads to obesity, for which it is considered a public health problem in most countries.

The hyperglycemia that accompanies it, is a factor that triggers other conditions

such as: Alterations in the ocular organ; failure of the renal, nervous and cardiovascular systems.

Normal blood sugar levels are established between 70mg/dl and 100mg/dl on fasting, and two hours after eating to a maximum of 140mg/dl. When levels are between 100mg/dl and 125mg/dl on fasting, and two hours after eating between 140mg/dl and 199mg/dl, it is considered a warning sign that a pre-diabetic state is present.

Therefore, when there are levels greater than 126mg/dl on fasting and 200mg/dl two hours after eating, it is considered a possible diabetes.

Causes

The factors that lead to this disease revolve around an alteration in the secretion and action of insulin. More specifically, its causes are based on the type of diabetes that is present, and may be the result of damage generated against the β-cells of the pancreas, due to an insufficiency of insulin or resistance to it.

Likewise, a poor eating habit in childhood that is reinforced by an inadequate diet in later years plus an unhealthy lifestyle, play a fundamental role in the establishment of this disease.

Types

There are two main types of diabetes, each with different characteristics.
Type 1: Formerly called insulin-dependent or juvenile. In it there is a deficient production or total lack of insulin, due to the destruction of the pancreas β-cells (cells that produce insulin), by the body's immune system (it is autoimmune).
It is most common in children and adolescents.

Its treatment is based on daily injections of insulin.

Type 2: The vast majority of people affected by diabetes report having this type, covering up to 90% of patients. It is characterized by insulin resistance which results in increased blood sugar levels.
It predominates in adulthood and is often associated with people who are overweight or obese.

Due to changes in many people's lifestyles, a hectic lifestyle that does not result in good diets, technological advances and the facilities these bring, the number of people affected by type 2 diabetes has increased greatly over the years.

It is important to mention gestational diabetes, in which a healthy woman who is pregnant experiences a significant rise in her blood glucose levels.

Symptomatology

Diabetes is characterized by a combination of these three factors:
Polydipsia: Abnormal increase in the need for fluid intake.
Polyphagia: Excessive food intake.
Polyuria: Excessive urination, exceeding 3 litres of urine per day approximately.

In addition to:
Ocular alterations due to hyperglycemia, ranging from blurred vision to blindness.
Feeling of tiredness and fatigue.

Alterations in the nervous system, evidencing loss of sensitivity in the members, tingling.
Development of ulcerations especially in the lower extremities. In severe cases it may be necessary to resort to amputation.

The healing process is also compromised, favouring the development of infections.

Diagnosis
-Fasting blood sugar test, where diabetes is considered if the blood sugar value is higher than 126mg/dl.
-Oral glucose tolerance test, where diabetes is diagnosed if two hours after the individual has consumed a sugary drink, their blood sugar levels are 200mg/dl.

-Glycated hemoglobin test, It indicates the average blood sugar level for the last few months. No fasting is required.
It is recommended that women who have had gestational diabetes be screened for diabetes every 2 years, as their risk of developing this disease is increased.


Treatment

It is mainly based on a modification of the life style, making changes in the diet and if necessary the decrease of the body weight, accompanied by an increase of the physical activity.

In this way, it manages to keep the disease at bay, avoiding possible complications and slowing down its progress.

In the case of type 1 diabetes, a pancreas transplant may be indicated. And it is necessary a daily insulin treatment.
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